# [racket] Function composition in Racket

 From: Neil Toronto (neil.toronto at gmail.com) Date: Tue Oct 16 12:08:56 EDT 2012 Previous message: [racket] Function composition in Racket Next message: [racket] Function composition in Racket Messages sorted by: [date] [thread] [subject] [author]

```I hadn't thought of making two passes. Thanks!

I'd have to have the terms indexed by two different orderings
(nondecreasing in x's degree and nondecreasing in y's), or be willing to
sort. That seems tricky or slowish, but much better than what I've had
in mind. It should also work with other orthogonal bases, like the
Chebyshev polynomials, using Clenshaw's algorithm (of which Horner's is
a special case).

To let you know where I'm going with this, I'm considering designs for
`math/polynomial'. I want a data type that can represent sparse
polynomials over any ring, with any orthogonal basis in that ring. Basic
polynomial ops would be +, *, and conversion to another basis or another
ring type (e.g. from Exact-Rational to Flonum). A quotient polynomial
type would lift polynomial rings to fields.

I'd also like another basic op to be generating the syntax of a function
that evaluates the polynomial. Polynomials could then be built at
expansion time - say, by building a Taylor, Chebyshev, or minimax
approximation  - and then evaluated quickly at runtime.

It looks like you know what you're talking about (you probably
understood all the preceeding text and can even point out errors :D), so
I'd love to hear any ideas you have along these lines.

Neil ⊥

On 10/15/2012 10:46 PM, Gregory Woodhouse wrote:
> I suppose I'm just stating the obvious here, but R[x, y] is naturally isomorphic to R[x][y]. That is, polynomials in x and y over the ring R have a natural interpretation as polynomials in y over the ring R[x] of polynomials over R. So, if you had a good library for working with polynomials (of one variable) you could just evaluate p(a, b) by evaluating Horner's rule twice.
>
> Sent from my iPhone
>
> On Oct 15, 2012, at 10:15 AM, Neil Toronto <neil.toronto at gmail.com> wrote:
>
>> On 10/15/2012 11:49 AM, Jens Axel Søgaard wrote:
>>> 2012/10/15 Stephen Bloch <bloch at adelphi.edu>:
>>>
>>>> But probably slower, at least for exact numbers.  If "expt" were implemented naively as "for i = 1 to num", the total number of multiplications would be quadratic in degree; if it were implemented by repeated squaring, the total number of multiplications would be O(n log(n)); with Horner's algorithm or your "values" approach, it's linear.
>>>>
>>>> Horner's algorithm gives us
>>>>
>>>> (lambda (poly x)
>>>>     (for/fold ([sum 0])
>>>>        ([c (polynomial-coeffs poly)])
>>>>        (+ c (* sum x))))
>>>
>>> If I recall correctly, Horner's algorithm also gives more precise results,
>>> when used with pseudo real numbers.
>>
>> Especially true when coefficients alternate signs, producing massive cancellation. That's the main reason to use it, since floating-point exponentiation runs in constant time. (It's also a tad faster, requiring at least 1-2 fewer flops per coefficient... but probably many more, because hardware `pow' is usually broken for non-rational inputs and implementations have to work around that.)
>>
>> What I'd really like, by the time the math library has polynomials, is a Horner-like algorithm for sparse polynomials of the form
>>
>>     c0 + ... + cn * x^(i_n) * y^(j_n) + ...
>>
>> The sequence of (i_n,j_n) can only be partially ordered, which makes it tricky.
>>
>> Neil ⊥
>>
>> ____________________
>> Racket Users list:
>> http://lists.racket-lang.org/users

```

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