# [plt-dev] Exponential expansion

 From: Carl Eastlund (cce at ccs.neu.edu) Date: Tue Feb 16 23:41:54 EST 2010 Previous message: [plt-dev] Exponential expansion Next message: [plt-dev] Exponential expansion Messages sorted by: [date] [thread] [subject] [author]

```Thank you, Matthew.  I feel foolish now for mistaking quadratic for
exponential.  Nevertheless, I appreciate any improvements you can
make.

Carl Eastlund

On Tue, Feb 16, 2010 at 9:25 PM, Matthew Flatt <mflatt at cs.utah.edu> wrote:
> Yes, it's roughly quadratic, since each discovered internal `define'
> adds an item to an environment represented as a linked list (and
> recognizing the next `define' means walking through the environment to
> check for shadowing bindings). I'll try to improve it.
>
> At Sun, 14 Feb 2010 19:41:21 -0500, Carl Eastlund wrote:
>> Internal definition contexts (e.g. the body of let or lambda) appear
>> to expand in exponential time based on the number of definitions.  The
>> exponential is very slow -- the exponent is probably not linear, but
>> based on some root of the number of definitions -- but given a large
>> enough program it does explode.
>>
>> Here is code I used to benchmark definitions in a module versus
>> definitions in a let expression (also inside a module, in case it
>> makes a difference):
>>
>> --------------------------------------------------
>>
>> #lang scheme
>>
>> (define (definition-module n)
>>   #`(module M scheme #,(definitions n)))
>>
>> (define (expression-module n)
>>   #`(module M scheme #,(expressions n)))
>>
>> (define (expressions n)
>>   #`(let () #,(definitions n) (void)))
>>
>> (define (definitions n)
>>   #`(begin #,@(build-list n (lambda (i) #`(define #,(gensym) (void))))))
>>
>> (define (show term)
>>   (for ([i (in-range 3)])
>>     (time (expand-syntax term))))
>>
>> --------------------------------------------------
>>
>> And here are the timing results of expanding modules and expressions
>> with 1,000 through 10,000 definitions, with three trials at each
>> increment of 1,000:
>>
>> > (show (definition-module 1000))
>> cpu time: 409 real time: 416 gc time: 119
>> cpu time: 279 real time: 283 gc time: 0
>> cpu time: 366 real time: 374 gc time: 71
>> > (show (definition-module 2000))
>> cpu time: 690 real time: 702 gc time: 121
>> cpu time: 723 real time: 734 gc time: 147
>> cpu time: 723 real time: 738 gc time: 152
>> > (show (definition-module 3000))
>> cpu time: 1148 real time: 1171 gc time: 297
>> cpu time: 986 real time: 1001 gc time: 154
>> cpu time: 1138 real time: 1167 gc time: 278
>> > (show (definition-module 4000))
>> cpu time: 1430 real time: 1453 gc time: 319
>> cpu time: 1441 real time: 1467 gc time: 310
>> cpu time: 1682 real time: 1710 gc time: 531
>> > (show (definition-module 5000))
>> cpu time: 3089 real time: 3128 gc time: 1693
>> cpu time: 2920 real time: 2960 gc time: 1498
>> cpu time: 1899 real time: 1932 gc time: 498
>> > (show (definition-module 6000))
>> cpu time: 2220 real time: 2261 gc time: 514
>> cpu time: 2216 real time: 2256 gc time: 489
>> cpu time: 2182 real time: 2235 gc time: 461
>> > (show (definition-module 7000))
>> cpu time: 2702 real time: 2748 gc time: 670
>> cpu time: 5213 real time: 5301 gc time: 3207
>> cpu time: 2500 real time: 2558 gc time: 480
>> > (show (definition-module 8000))
>> cpu time: 3128 real time: 3182 gc time: 791
>> cpu time: 3042 real time: 3105 gc time: 721
>> cpu time: 3073 real time: 3128 gc time: 728
>> > (show (definition-module 9000))
>> cpu time: 5864 real time: 5937 gc time: 3329
>> cpu time: 3454 real time: 3518 gc time: 872
>> cpu time: 3267 real time: 3324 gc time: 690
>> > (show (definition-module 10000))
>> cpu time: 3884 real time: 3952 gc time: 1023
>> cpu time: 6234 real time: 6322 gc time: 3429
>> cpu time: 3685 real time: 3766 gc time: 800
>>
>> > (show (expression-module 1000))
>> cpu time: 1152 real time: 1160 gc time: 0
>> cpu time: 1211 real time: 1223 gc time: 82
>> cpu time: 1166 real time: 1177 gc time: 0
>> > (show (expression-module 2000))
>> cpu time: 3895 real time: 3919 gc time: 108
>> cpu time: 4185 real time: 4215 gc time: 152
>> cpu time: 4430 real time: 4455 gc time: 157
>> > (show (expression-module 3000))
>> cpu time: 9354 real time: 9416 gc time: 185
>> cpu time: 8699 real time: 8750 gc time: 160
>> cpu time: 8860 real time: 8913 gc time: 149
>> > (show (expression-module 4000))
>> cpu time: 19506 real time: 19758 gc time: 303
>> cpu time: 18091 real time: 18254 gc time: 301
>> cpu time: 17669 real time: 17842 gc time: 175
>> > (show (expression-module 5000))
>> cpu time: 30103 real time: 30369 gc time: 1756
>> cpu time: 31301 real time: 31784 gc time: 1376
>> cpu time: 28922 real time: 29213 gc time: 279
>> > (show (expression-module 6000))
>> cpu time: 50572 real time: 50931 gc time: 401
>> cpu time: 42670 real time: 43028 gc time: 275
>> cpu time: 42491 real time: 42994 gc time: 320
>> > (show (expression-module 7000))
>> cpu time: 65161 real time: 65775 gc time: 427
>> cpu time: 72382 real time: 72834 gc time: 407
>> cpu time: 60682 real time: 61430 gc time: 463
>> > (show (expression-module 8000))
>> cpu time: 98473 real time: 99281 gc time: 3186
>> cpu time: 99311 real time: 100036 gc time: 372
>> cpu time: 106628 real time: 107104 gc time: 401
>> > (show (expression-module 9000))
>> cpu time: 120579 real time: 121512 gc time: 572
>> cpu time: 127369 real time: 128387 gc time: 418
>> cpu time: 125163 real time: 126157 gc time: 575
>> > (show (expression-module 10000))
>> cpu time: 157635 real time: 158839 gc time: 619
>> cpu time: 173710 real time: 174952 gc time: 3593
>> cpu time: 178207 real time: 179627 gc time: 553
>>
>> The module-level definitions expand in linear time, taking 3-400
>> milliseconds per definition and completing a 10,000 definition module
>> in around 3 seconds.  The internal definitions start exploding
>> quickly, doubling every 1,000 definitions or so; this slows down
>> somewhat, but the final trials of 10,000 definitions take nearly 3
>> minutes instead of 3 seconds.
>>
>> Practical examples of internal definitions, such as units, classes,
>> and (most important to me) Modular ACL2 components, explode even
>> faster than this.  This may be the internal definition explosion
>> multiplied by greater constant factors, or it may be that certain uses
>> of local-expand add another source of exponential explosion.  One way
>> or another, so long as internal definition contexts can take
>> exponential time, language features based on them can't do any better
>> in the general case.
>>
>> Is this an inherent drawback of internal definition expansion?  Or is
>> this a bug we can eliminate?
>>
>> Carl Eastlund

```

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